India, with a population of nearly 1.2 billion, is the world’s third-largest greenhouse gas emitter. It has pledged to reduce carbon emission per unit of gross domestic product up to 35% by 2030 from the 2005 level. The building sector is experiencing unprecedented growth leading to higher energy consumption (Govt of India, 2015). India’s electricity demand is expected to rise from 775 TWh in 2012 to 2499 TWh by 2030. Estimates by National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Aayog) indicate that the mitigation activities for moderate low carbon development would cost India around USD 834 billion till 2030 at 2011 prices (de Dear, Leow, & Foo, 1991). With an increase in affordability and power supply, the future shall see a steep rise in demand for air conditioning. By 2030, 60% of commercial space and 40% of residential households in India are expected to be air-conditioned. The space cooling systems adopted in developing nations like India have a great impact on the economy as well greenhouse gas emissions.
The ISO and ASHRAE thermal comfort standards are used to design space conditioning systems, where the systems operate at 22.5 ± 1°C. The ASHRAE 55-2010 standard includes an adaptive thermal comfort model to differentiate the thermal response of occupants in air-conditioned and naturally ventilated buildings. However, until now there has been a lack of a contextual model for adaptive thermal comfort for India, even though a large proportion of existing as well as new buildings are either fully naturally ventilated or use natural ventilation for most of the year, supplemented by air-conditioning.
The project has worked in three distinct but symbiotic activities.
In each building, instruments were installed to log and monitor the end-use of energy consumption, outdoor weather condition, supply air temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity of low energy cooling system and. Indoor environmental parameters every hour.
Three times in a year ‘Right now, Right Here’ surveys were conducted to analyze the thermal sensation, thermal and air velocity preference, and thermal acceptability of occupants
Expected Outcomes & Deliverables
A Low Energy Cooling Test Bed (LECTB) was constructed. LECTB comprises two chambers – an indoor environment chamber and an outdoor climate chamber. The outdoor climate chamber is capable of replicating outdoor weather conditions for low energy cooling systems and an indoor chamber replicates indoor space conditions. The chambers are designed for easy replacement of the low energy cooling systems to be tested.
Click to view Brochure – Driving Efficient Low Energy Cooling Technologies Assessment to Technology Tech-Transfer (Delta-T)