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An investigation into adoption of green measures for affordable housing in India (2023)
Authors: Sneha Asrani, Rajan Rawal, Yash Shukla, Ravi Chaudhary, Monu Ratra, Ajay Jaiswal
Abstract:

Green Buildings were a market initiative to propel sustainability in the built environment. Various national and international Green Building Rating Agencies have formulated several region- and building typology-specific Green Building Rating Programs (GBRP). Prevailing GBRPs encompass intent-based criteria that judge a building’s performance based on optimizing the


Keyword: Green Building Rating Programs; Green Affordable Housing; Climate Resilience; Adaptation; Holistic Sustainability
Presented at: Energise 2023, at Goa



‘Fit for Purpose’ Urban Hear Island Effect Study Methodology for Indian Cities (2023)
Authors: Rajan Rawal, Yash Shukla, Subham Das, Tej Chavda, Rahul Agnihotri, Lily Riahi, Benjamin Hic
Abstract:

The paper acknowledges that Urban Heat Island Effect (UHIE) occurs due to urbanization impacting earth surface characteristics, changes in the vegetation profile within urban regions, and increased anthropogenic heat. Without a common agreed-upon methodology with the various objectives that cities wish to accomplish, Indian cities are adopting


Keyword: Urban Heat Island Effect, Level of Details, Fit for Purpose, Heat Action Plan, Outdoor Thermal Comfort.
Presented at: Energise 2023, at Goa



Developing teaching in urban building energy modelling (2023)
Authors: Pamela Fennell, Ivan Korolija, Rajan Rawal, Martin Wieser Rey, Argyris Oraiopoulos
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Urban Building Energy Models (UBEMs) are increasingly important tools for national and local authorities seeking to understand and manage their carbon emissions. As such tools move from the preserve of research into the more general application, interest in learning about their application is increasing. The quantity


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Presented at: The 18th International IBPSA Conference and Exhibition, Building Simulation 2023. 4-6 September 2023, Shanghai, China



What is happening? Why is it happening? – Investigative pedagogical approach for building performance simulation education (2023)
Authors: Minu Agarwal, Rajan Rawal
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This paper is based on a study that evaluates the efficacy of early Building Performance Simulation (BPS) users in critically examining their simulation model results with minimal external support. The objective of the study was to deepen the current understanding of challenges faced by


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Presented at: The 18th International IBPSA Conference and Exhibition, Building Simulation 2023, 4-6 September 2023, Shanghai, China



Embodied Energy Assessment of Walling Systems Using Life Cycle Approach for Housing Sector in India (2022)
Authors: Sakshi Nathani, Rajan Rawal, Yash Shukla, Bhavya Pathak
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The purpose of this study is to assess the embodied energy emissions of walling systems used in dwelling units of India over a reference period of 50 years. The Life Cycle Assessment is undertaken within the system boundary of cradle to gate, as defined in standard ISO


Keyword: Embodied Energy, Walling Systems, Housing, India
Presented at: 5th International Conference on Building Energy and Environment. COBEE 2022. Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Singapore.



Thermally Comfortable Affordable Housing: A Study On Residential Building Code In India (2021)
Authors: Sneha Asranil, Rajan Rawal, Yash Shukla, Peter Graham, Priyanka Bhanushali, Arjun Desai
Abstract:

On an average, India has more than 3000 Cooling Degree Days (CDD). The multifamily public housing being constructed under India’s Prime Minister Awas Yojana (PMAY) is aimed at providing formal housing to the society’s Economic Weaker Section (EWS). It is essential that this housing delivers thermally comfortable


Keyword: PMAY, Residential Building Code, Eco Niwas Samhita, Adaptive Thermal Comfort
Presented at: Comfort At The Extremes, CATE’21, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, October 2021



Urban Form And Energy Consumption In Wastewater Management: Case Study Of Ahmedabad (2021)
Authors: Srushti Thakur, Mona Iyer, Palak Patel, Sachin. S, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:
Municipal services account for 4% of the total electricity consumption in India. In wastewater management value chain, 40% - 80% of the operational expenditure is on electricity. Conventionally, energy efficiency studies and interventions focus on electro-mechanical aspects of pumping assets. This research assesses and establishes empirical

Keyword: Wastewater management; Energy efficiency; Energy consumption; Urban Form; Urban Planning; Sustainable Cities
Presented at: ICWSS21: International eConference on Water Source Sustainability Roorkee, India, June 18-20, 2021



Urban Planning And Energy Consumption In Storm Water Management: Case Study Of Ahmedabad (2021)
Authors: Sakshi Sharma, Mona Iyer, Palak Patel, Sachin. S, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:
Rapid urbanization has resulted in fast development and stress on the water cycle and energy consumption. Increased built and paved surfaces lead to increased surface runoff and urban flooding. This also increases the inflow in conduit-based, electromechanical stormwater systems of a city, resulting in more energy consumption.

Keyword: Energy Consumption; Municipal Service; Stormwater management; Urban Planning; Energy Efficient; Urban Factors
Presented at: ICWSS21: International eConference on Water Source Sustainability Roorkee, India, June 18-20, 2021



City Level Fuel Energy Efficiency In Municipal Solid Waste Collection: A Case Of Ahmedabad (2020)
Authors: Sneha Bhattacharyya, Mona Iyer, Sachin.S, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:
Efficient service delivery in the Municipal Solid Waste Management sector by default implies regular waste removal from the habitation to a treatment or disposal facility. In the 21st century, such service delivery in large cities demands on the deployment of motorised vehicles for the transport of waste.

Keyword: Fuel Consumption; Fuel Efficiency; Municipal Solid Waste Man-agement; Urban Form; City Level Assessment
Presented at: International Conference on Resilient and Liveable City Planning, School of Planning and Architecture Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh



Building Level Energy Consumption In Water Services For The City Of Ahmedabad (2020)
Authors: Palak Patel, Mona Iyer, Sachin.S, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:
The initiatives taken for energy efficiency in India have largely focused on street lighting, water pumping for irrigation, energy-intensive industries, and the building sector. Studies on the building sector have explored the relationship between built form and energy consumption in terms of solar energy, heat energy demand,

Keyword: Water Pumping; Electricity Consumption; Urban Morphology; Residential Building Typologies; Building Level
Presented at: International Conference on Resilient and Liveable City Planning, School of Planning and Architecture Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh



City Specific Dynamics Of Energy, Environment And Comfort For Room Air Conditioner Performance (2020)
Authors: Nidhi Rai Jain, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:

Final energy use for cooling in buildings has tripled between 1990 and 2016 to 2020 terawatt hours. Excluding China and Japan, India accounts for about 28% of


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Presented at: ENERGISE 2020, at Hyderabad



Three Sides Of Coin: Connecting Cooling Capacity, Environmental Impact And Comfort (2019)
Authors: Nidhi Rai Jain, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:

In India, the energy end-use is anticipated to increase by 56% from 2014 to 2050. It shares 12% of total carbon emissions in the world by Room Air Conditioners (RACs). As increase in energy production using fossil fuels has an adverse effect on climate, there is


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Presented at: 7th International Conference on Energy Research and Development 2019, at Kuwait



A Simplified Method For Estimating Cooling Energy Savings Due To Passive Strategies For Indian Cities (2019)
Authors: Arjun Desai, Prasad Vaidya, Sanchi Pathela
Abstract:

Different methods are used for calculating the energy consumption of buildings. While the heat balance method, weighing factor method and thermal network methods are complex and require intense computing power, the degree-day and the BIN methods are relatively simple. In this study, we have used the degree-day

The results indicate the cooling energy reduction possible due to the three passive design strategies. The CDD-based results are compared with EnergyPlus results. The Normalised Mean Biased Error is 4.6% while the Root Mean Squared Error value is 15%. 


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Presented at: Building Simulation 2019, held at Rome



Impact Of Building Energy Code At City Level Energy Consumption – A Study In The Context Of Ahmedabad, India (2019)
Authors: Rajan Rawal, Kartikay Sharma, Himani Pandya
Abstract:
This paper demonstrates the impact of Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), India implementation in the city of Ahmedabad India. The study uses available administrative and property tax data from the local government in conjunction with building energy simulation to estimate the benefits of various energy conservation measures

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Presented at: Building Simulation 2019, held at Rome



Residential Buildings In India: Energy Use Projections And Savings Potentials (2015)
Authors: Yash Shukla, Rajan Rawal, Sophie Shnapp
Abstract:

As energy consumption from residential buildings is predicted to rise by more than eight times by 2050, it is of vital importance for India to develop energy-efficiency strategies focused on the residential sector to limit the current trend of unsustainable escalating energy demand. This study investigates impeded

The study conducted a survey of 800 households, in four-climate zones of India, to map current equipment penetration rate and electricity consumption patterns. Key information including residential unit area, monthly energy consumption, connected load, number of appliances & their power rating, as well as operational patterns, has been gathered in a survey. Building energy modeling (using EnergyPlus) was then deployed to quantify comfort benefits and energy savings potentials of better performing building envelopes.

The trends observed during survey and building energy modeling analysis, along with the information from past studies, have been used to derive residential electric energy projections till 2050. The projections in the study have been segregated by three end use segments (air conditioning, envelope, and equipment) for urban and rural residential sectors. Projection scenarios show that the electricity consumption will rise by more than eight times under the business-as-usual scenario. With the focused policy and market efforts, the electricity rise in residential sectors can be restricted to five times, four times, and three times that of current energy use under modest, aggressive, and very aggressive scenarios. 


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Presented at: ECEEE 2015 Summer Study on energy efficiency



Strategic Framework For Net Zero Energy Campus In India: A Case Of CEPT University Campus (2016)
Authors: Amiya Behera, Yash Shukla, Rajan Rawa
Abstract:
To achieve indoor environmental comfort conditions and to facilitate economic activities, building occupants use electric energy. In conventional scenario electric grid provides electricity to buildings. This study attempts to evaluate feasibility of CEPT University campus – an academic, research and development facility located in hot and dry

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Presented at: 15th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET 2016)



Approach To Building Energy Codes Implementation In India (2015)
Authors: Rajan Rawal, Prasad Vaidya, Sanyogita Manu
Abstract:

Various works carried out by Centre for Advanced Research in Building Science and Energy (CARBSE) at CEPT University, Ahmedabad, has been discussed in this paper. The objective of this project was


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Presented at: International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Buildings (ICEEB), December 17-18, New Delhi, 2015



Deployment Of Energy Simulation For Design Of Voluntary Window Labeling Program In India (2013)
Authros: Rajan Rawal, Srijan Didwania, Yash Shukla, Sanyogita Manu, Purvi Panchal
Abstract:

India has experienced an average economic growth of 10% since 1991 leading to the establishment of new commercial buildings. Amongst other initiatives, Indian government enacted the Energy Conservation Act in 2001


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Presented at: 13th International IBPSA Conference - BS2013, At Chambery, France



ECOnirman & Third Party Assessors: Innovative Approaches To Energy Code Compliance And Enforcement In India (2013)
Authors: Rajan Rawal, Vinay Ghatti, Sanyogita Manu, Smita Chandiwala, Prasad Vaidya
Abstract:

Compliance with Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) of India can save up to 1.7 billion kWh annually. ECBC enforcement poses significant challenges to local governments who are responsible for enforcement given India’s 12th Five Year Plan’s compliance goals. This paper summarizes two important initiatives taken up in India for
In the first initiative, the United States Agency for International Development supported the development of the ECOnirman Whole Building Performance Tool, an online code compliance energy simulation tool. It assists developers and building designers in demonstrating performance-based compliance. It shows great promise for the future in India: it enables building developers to meet code by installing only those measures that improve their building's energy performance; it promotes innovation in design and technologies; it enables a large user-base to do energy simulations and results in true capacity building; and the database of inputs and results enables policy analysis. Tying the metered energy use of the buildings to the ECOnirman database will result in a robust dataset that will be a powerful policy tool for future programs, rating and labelling of buildings.
The other code compliance initiative is a nationwide Third Party Assessor (TPA) framework for compliance checking of ECBC. Urban Local Bodies (ULB) that enforce building and development rules and bye-laws, face technical and manpower related challenges when enforcing ECBC. This paper discusses the background research, the stakeholder engagement, and the institutional framework proposed for allowing a TPA model to be used across India.
This paper provides recommendations and next steps for ECBC compliance through future development of ECOnirman and implementation of the TPA framework. 


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Presented at: eceee 2013 Summer Study, France



Energy Code Enforcement For Beginners: A Tiered Approach To Energy Code In India (2012)
Authors: Rajan Rawal, Prasad Vaidya, Vinay Ghatt
Abstract:

In the next 18 years, India will add 67% of the floor space projected for 2030, or about 2.3 billion square meters. Buildings consume 33% of total energy in India and this is growing at 8% per annum. For a large scale market change, the Bureau of

Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation funded a study to develop a tiered approach to compliance, with evaluation of individual ECBC measures for energy savings, incremental cost, and ease of enforcement. The findings were peer reviewed and the measures were then bundled in to tiers. Lower tiers include ECBC measures that are easy for market adoption, and are enforceable through the current building permit process. This will help build capacity over time and allow developers to get experience with building energy efficiency. It will help enforce ECBC and build capacity at same time without reducing stringency of the code. This approach can be enforced more effectively given the current construction and real estate practices.

This paper summarizes the analysis and presents the policy case for the Tiered approach. 


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Presented at: ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, USA, 2012



Thermal Performance Of Vegetation On Urban Microclimate (2011)
Authors: Jalpa Gandhi, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:

Urbanization has direct impact on the spatial structure of the city, which in turn results in the dramatic change of the overall immediate environment. High-rise, high density built areas provides multiple surfaces


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Presented at: 5th International Conference on Energy Research and Development. Kuwait.2012



An Initial Parametric Evaluation Of The Impact Of The Energy Conservation Building Code Of India On Commercial Building Sector (2011)
Authors: Sanyogita Manu, Justin Wong, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:

The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) was launched in India in May 2007 under the Energy Conservation Act, 2001. It offers two compliance approaches - Prescriptive and Whole Building Performance (WBP). According to the EC Act, compliance with the ECBC has to be expressed in terms of

The simulation results help in understanding the relative impact of ECBC Prescriptive requirements and prioritizing the Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs). The results are extrapolated to understand the long-­term impact of the code on national energy savings. The paper also provides an insight into the sensitivity of the various ECMs in different climatic zones. 


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Presented at: International Building Performance Simulation Association -An IBPSA-AIRAH conference, November 2011, Sydney



Integration Of Solar Photovoltaics: To Suffice Interior Lighting Energy Consumption Of Office Buildings In Ahmedabad – An Approach Towards Zero Lighting Energy Consumption (2011)
Authors: Ashima Charnalia, Jyotirmay Mathur, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:

The study focuses on ways to minimize interior lighting energy consumption (ILEC) in daytime use office buildings and proposes use of solar photovoltaic’s (SPVs) to suffice the remaining lighting energy requirement. The objective of the study is to attain interior lighting energy autonomy through Solar Photovoltaic’s. The

The results of three floor plates also demonstrated that with every increase of 250 m2 floor plate area, there is a percentage increase of 56.8% in annual ILEC, with percentage increase of 50% in annual roof top energy generation, with percentage increase of 62.5% in annual energy imports from the grid, with percentage increase of 46.5% in annual energy exports to the grid. This implies that with increasing the floor plate area as the core area increases, there is a percentage decrease of 32.8% in annual net surplus energy on site. The second analysis Economics part, the study projected the life period energy summary to obtain life period cost summary of the installed SPV systems, which demonstrated that rooftop SPV system is still very high capital incentive investment with payback period of 22-24 years, without considering any government subsidiaries. Overall, the study demonstrates a sustainable approach towards interior lighting energy use in the building sector by utilizing renewable solar energy source. 


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Presented at: International Building Performance Simulation Association -An IBPSA-AIRAH conference, November 2011, Sydney



Potential Savings In Lighting Energy Due To Advancement In Indian Standard Time: An Enquiry In Context OF COMMERCIAL Office Spaces In India. (2011)
Authors: Padmini Rajaram, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:
Indian Standard Time (IST) is calculated with reference to 82.5° E longitude and the difference of +0530 hours from Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The permanent advancement of IST was proposed in the previous study from +0530 to +0600 hours with reference to 90° E longitude and is

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Presented at: International Building Performance Simulation Association -An IBPSA-AIRAH conference, November 2011, Sydney



Architectural Curriculum Enhancement For Promoting Sustainable Built Environment In India (2010)
Authors: Sanyogita Manu, Anurag Bajpai, Satish Kumar, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:
The world today is grappling with the challenge of balancing development through responsible use of natural resources. The challenge only becomes more pronounced for developing economies like India, where improving the quality of life of the masses needs to be mindful of already starved natural resources. To

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Presented at: ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, USA, 2010



Deriving energy performance evaluation for Personal Environmental Control Systems (PECS): A systematic review and meta-data analysis (2023)
Authors: Ariba Khan, Rajan Rawal, Yash Shukla
Abstract:

Personal Environmental Control Systems (PECS) offer individual control of thermal conditioning in localized environments within the building. It provides an innovative solution to decentralize space comfort conditioning. Several studies have demonstrated the advantages of PECS on thermal comfort and energy saving; most of them


Keyword: Personal Environmental Control Systems, Personalized Ventilation, Corrective Power, Energy Efficiency
Presented at: Energise 2023, at Goa



Hygrothermal Performance Of Lime And Cement Plaster. (2021)
Authors: Nikita Khatri, Rashmin Damle, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:  Hygrothermal behavior in materials can impact the energy consumption and thermal comfort of the building space. Commonly, cement plaster is used for plastering surfaces of a building space instead of the traditionally employed lime plaster. With this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the hygrothermal performance

Assessing the impact of Direct Evaporative Control Algorithms in Mixed-mode building
Authors: Charalampos Angelopoulos, Malcolm Cook, Yash Shukla, Eftychia Spentzou, Rajan Rawal, Lucian
Abstract:

Direct evaporative cooling (DEC) is one of the most commonly used cooling systems in many parts of the world with mainly hot and dry climatic conditions. Various simulation-based studies have been conducted to explore the potential of direct evaporative cooling in buildings. However, current dynamic thermal simulation tools use a simplified on/off


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Presented at: The 16th International Conference of IBPSA, Rome, Italy



Performance evaluation of indirect-direct evaporative cooling system in hot & dry climate.
Authors: Shoumik Desai, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:

The commercial and residential sector demands high cooling requirement, which is mostly achieved by using conventional cooling systems like split ACs, chillers or VRF. These systems currently produce 100 MT of CO2 per annum and hence contribute significantly to carbon emissions. To mitigate such environmental impacts,


Keyword: Indirect-direct evaporative cooling system, IDEC effectiveness, low energy cooling (LEC), energy consumption, thermal comfort
Presented at: Comfort At The Extremes (CATE) 2019, Heriot Watt University, Dubai



Thermal Properties of Indian Masonry Units & Masonry for Eco-Niwas Samhita Implementation (2023)
Authors: Sameer Maithel, Rajan Rawal, Yash Shukla
Abstract:

A majority of the residential buildings in India have masonry external walls. Heat gain and loss due to the conduction of heat from the external walls have a significant influence on indoor thermal comfort and cooling requirements. Design Uvalue of the external wall assembly


Keyword: U values, Thermal conductivity, Masonry Walls, RETV, Eco-Niwas Samhita
Presented at: Energise 2023, at Goa



An investigation of the operational energy and carbon savings of changing air-conditioning set points in Indian offices to provide adaptive thermal comfort temperatures locally (2023)
Authors: Rajan Rawal, Tarjani Mehta, Yash Shukla, Susan Roaf
Abstract:

Thermally comfortable and energy-efficient buildings will play a pivotal role in radically reducing operational energy use and carbon emissions from the built environment. The emphasis in emission reduction strategies is now moving away from reliance on the marginal energy benefits of slightly more energy efficient machines


Keyword: Carbon Emissions, Adaptive Comfort, Dynamic Setpoints, Natural ventilation, Ceiling Fans, Mixed Mode.
Presented at: The 8th International ICARB Conference 2023, 25-26 September 2023, Edinburgh Castle and Edinburgh City Chambers, Edinburgh, UK.



Developing and Calibrating a Cost-Effective Method to Determine Window to-Wall Ratio and Air-Conditioning Status of Existing Buildings (2022)
Authors: Abraham Philip, Bhavya Pathak, Shaily Gandhi, Rajan Rawal
Abstract:

The study presents a cost-effective and scalable method to determine the Window to Wall Ratio (WWR) and A/C status of existing buildings from ground-view façade imagery. Object Detection Classifier deploying Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN) is used to detect windows and buildings in visible images.


Keyword: machine learning, urban building energy model, thermal imaging, air-conditioning, window wall ratio
Presented at: The 5th International Conference on Building Energy And Environment (COBEE 2022), 25th to 29th July 2022, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.



Occupant Interaction With External Shading System In Residential Buildings Of Ahmedabad (2021)
Authors: Snowy Christophel S, Minu Agarwal, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: As per the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) during the last two decades heat waves accounted for 5.6% of the all the disaster related global fatalities. Several cities have established heat wave management task forces that warn and prepare people for upcoming heat waves by various mitigation

Supported by:

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Govt. of India, Gujarat Energy Development Agency, U.S. Agency for International Development iNDEXTb (Industrial Extension Bureau) Govt. of Gujarat, Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation, New Delhi