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Investigating Optimum Cooling Set Point Temperature And Air Velocity For Thermal Comfort And Energy Conservation In Mixed-Mode Buildings In India (2022)
Energies, March 2022
Sriraj Gokarakonda, Christoph van Treeck, Rajan Rawal

Abstract: In warm and hot climates, ceiling fans and/or air conditioners (ACs) are used to maintain thermal comfort. Ceiling fans provide air movement near the skin, which enhances the evaporation of sweat, reduces heat stress, and enhances thermal comfort. This is also called the

Keywords: elevated air speed; thermal comfort; mixed-mode buildings; set point temperature; energy consumption in buildings

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Assessing A Fit-For-Purpose Urban Building Energy Modelling Framework With Reference To Ahmedabad (2021)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment, June 2021
Anmol Mathur, Pamela Fennell, Rajan Rawal & Ivan Korolija
Abstract: Urban building energy models (UBEM) are driving sustainable design and operations of cities by combining urban datasets with energy simulations. UBEMs are developed from a range of inputs on the spatial and semantic details of the buildings, and the

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The Colours Of Comfort: From Thermal Sensation To Person-Centric Thermal Zones For Adaptive Building Strategies (2020)

Energy and Buildings, Volume 216, June 2020
Stephanie Gauthier,

Personal Comfort Systems: A Review On Comfort, Energy, And Economics (2020)
Energy and Buildings, Volume 214, 2020
Rajan Rawal, Marcel Schweiker, Ongun Berk Kazanci, Vishnu Vardhan, Quan Jin, Lin Duanmu
Abstract: Conventional heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are designed to condition the entire building volume. In contrast, Personal Comfort Systems (PCS) target conditioning only the occupied zones of the space, while maintaining the remaining volume at a relatively
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A Framework For Adopting Adaptive Thermal Comfort Principles In Design And Operation Of Buildings (2019)

Energy and Buildings, Volume 205, December 2019
Runa T.

A Study Of Indoor Thermal Parameters For Naturally Ventilated Occupied Buildings In The Warm-Humid Climate Of Southern India (2019)

Building and Environment, Volume 151, 15 March 2019

Performance Evaluation Of Climate Responsive Buildings In India – Case Studies From Cooling Dominated Climate Zones. Building And Environment (2019)
Building and Environment, Volume 148, 15 January 2019
Sanyogita Manu, Gail Brager, Rajan Rawal, Angela Geronazzo and Devarsh Kumar

Abstract: India has a rich tradition of climate responsive architecture, incorporating several variations of passive design strategies that have been layered over time with the cultural, social and environmental context of the immediate geographical region.
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Achieving The 2°C Goal: The Potential Of India’s Building Sector (2019)
Building Research & Information, Volume 47, 2019 - Issue 1
Peter Graham and Rajan Rawal
Abstract: India’s growth of energy demand in the building stock, and efforts to curb it, are placed into an international context by adapting the reporting criteria developed for the Global Alliance on Building & Construction's (GABC) Global Status Report (2017)
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Influence Of Building Design And Control Parameters On The Potential Of Mixed-Mode Buildings In India (2019)

Building and Environment, Volume 148, 15 January 2019

A Review Of Advances For Thermal And Visual Comfort Controls In Personal Environmental Control (PEC) Systems (2019)
Intelligent Buildings International, Volume 11, 2019 - Issue 2
Sam Babu Godithi, Enna Sachdeva, Vishal Garg, Richard Brown, Christian Kohler and Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The buildings are conventionally operated to maintain homogeneous indoor ambient conditions to maintain comfortable thermal and visual environments. However, maintaining these homogeneous conditions throughout the building leads to unnecessary energy consumption,

This paper provides an overview of the state of research associated with personalized thermal conditioning and lighting systems. In addition, presents a survey of controls and communication systems that operate these devices. Finally, the paper considers the energy savings potential from a personal thermal comfort and lighting comfort.
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Packaged Scalable Energy Information Systems For Hotels (2018)
Journal of Facilities Management, Vol. 16, No. 2
Reshma Singh, Paul Mathew, Jessica Granderson, Yash Shukla, Amiya Ranjan Behera
Abstract: Purpose: Building Energy Information Systems (EIS) are performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. Some $60 billion is spent annually on wasted energy in U.S. buildings, and

Design/methodology/approach: A five-step approach was followed: 1. Identifying business drivers as key determinants for hotel sector-specific packages 2. Addressing heterogeneity to develop standardized, tiered packages 3. Determining performance metrics for key stakeholders 4. Recommending streamlined data architecture 5. Developing visualization enabling insights and actions

Findings: Technical specifications for two tiers (entry and advanced) of EIS packages for hotels have been developed. EIS vendor, integrator, and client organization’s facilities and IT staff have been considered as key stakeholders. Findings from six field demonstrations show benefits of (i) cost-effectiveness, through reduced transactional, first, and operational costs, (ii) scalability, by accommodating heterogeneity across the building sub-sector, (iii) simplicity, by integrating meters, gateways, and software in the package, and (iv) actionability in organizations, across various decision making levels.

Originality/value: Building owners and operators can use these specifications to ease procurement and installation of EIS in their facilities. EIS software vendors can use them to develop new product offerings for underserved sectors.
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Development Of The ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II (2018)
Building and Environment, Volume 142, September 2018, Pages 502-512
Veronika Földváry, Toby Cheung, Hui Zhang, Richard de Dear, Thomas Parkinson, Edward Arens, Chungyoon Chun, Stefano Schiavon, Maohui Luo, Gail Brager, Peixian Li, Soazig Kaam, Michael A Adebamowo, Mary M Andamon, Francesco Babich, Chiheb Bouden, Hana Bukovianska, Christhina Candido, Bin Cao, Salvatore Carlucci, David KW Cheong,

Thermal Characterization Of Full-Scale PCM Products And Numerical Simulations, Including Hysteresis, To Evaluate Energy Impacts In An Envelope Application (2018)
Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 138, 25 June 2018, Pages 501-512
Kaushik Biswas, Yash Shukla, Andre Desjarlais, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: This article presents combined measurements of fatty acid-based organic PCM products and numerical simulations to evaluate the energy benefits of adding a PCM layer to an exterior wall. The thermal storage characteristics of the PCM were measured using a

The simulations were done using a previously-validated two-dimensional (2D) wall model containing a PCM layer and incorporating the HFMA-measured enthalpy functions. The wall model was modified to include the hysteresis phenomenon observed in PCMs, which is reflected in different melting and freezing temperatures of the PCM. Simulations were done with a single enthalpy curve based on the PCM melting tests, both melting and freezing enthalpy curves, and with different degrees of hysteresis between the melting and freezing curves. Significant differences were observed between the thermal performances of the modeled wall with the PCM layer under the different scenarios.
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Low Energy Cooling And Ventilation In Indian Residences (2018)

Science and Technology for the Built Environment, Volume 24, 2018 - Issue 8
Malcolm Cook and Rajan Rawal
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Energy Appliance Transformation In Commercial Buildings In India Under Alternate Policy Scenarios (2017)
Energy, Volume 140, Part 1, December 2017, Pages 952-965
Amit Garg, Jyoti Maheshwari, P.R. Shukla and Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The total electricity consumption from commercial sector was about 9% during 2013–14 in India. Load research survey was carried out to study the usage patterns for all types of electric appliances used in commercial establishments at
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Transient Three-Dimensional CFD Modelling Of Ceiling Fans (2017)

Building and Environment, Volume 123, October 2017, Pages 37–49 Francesco Babich, Malcolm Cook, Dennis Loveday, sans",="" sans-serif;"="">Rajan RawalYash Shukla
Abstract: Ceiling fans have been used for decades as a means of providing thermal comfort in tropical countries such as India. However, recent years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of air conditioning as a means to achieve comfort, and therefore in the total energy consumption and related CO2 emissions. Ceiling fans are still viable options to limit use of air conditioners or in combination with air conditioners without compromising on thermal comfort and still achieving energy savings. Ceiling fans generate non-uniform velocity profiles, and therefore relatively non-uniform thermal environments, whose characteristics may be tough to analyse with simple modelling methods. This issue can be investigated using CFD. However, to date, there are few works on ceiling fans, CFD and thermal comfort. More accurate models are therefore required to predict their performance. The research presented in this paper aimed to develop and validate a three-dimensional transient implicit CFD model of a typical ceiling fan available in India by comparing simulation results obtained using different URANS turbulence models with measured data collected in controlled environment. The results highlight that this ceiling fan model is able to replicate the predominant characteristics of the air flow generated by the fan such as the meandering plume and the local fine free shear layers. The best results are achieved when the SST k-ω turbulence model is used, with 83% of the simulated values being within the error bars of the respective measured value.

Keywords: Ceiling fan, Thermal comfort, CFD validation, Turbulence modelling, India, Environmental chamber
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Field Studies Of Thermal Comfort Across Multiple Climate Zones For The Subcontinent: India Model For Adaptive Comfort (IMAC) (2016)
Building and Environment, Volume 106, September 2016, Pages 422-426
Sanyogita Manu, Yash Shukla, Rajan Rawal, Leena E.Thomas, Richard de Dear
Abstract: India is witnessing unprecedented growth trends in building construction, particularly office spaces. Indian offices are designed to operate at 22.5 ± 1 °C all year round to meet the stringent “Class A” specifications outlined
Occupants in naturally ventilated Indian offices were found to be more adaptive than the prevailing ASHRAE and EN models would suggest. According to the IMAC model, neutral temperature in naturally ventilated buildings varies from 19.6 to 28.5 °C for 30-day outdoor running mean air temperatures ranging from 12.5 to 31 °C. This is the first instance where a study proposes a single adaptive model for mixed mode buildings asserting its validity for both naturally ventilated and air-conditioned modes of operation in the building, with neutral temperature varying from 21.5 to 28.7 °C for 13–38.5 °C range of outdoor temperatures. For air-conditioned buildings, Fanger's static PMV model was found to consistently over-predict the sensation on the warmer side of the 7-point sensation scale.

Keywords: Indian office buildings, Fanger PMV, Adaptive thermal comfort, Adaptive model, Neutral temperature, Comfort standards
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Impact Of Vegetation And Building Height On Urban Ambient Temperature In Hot And Dry Climate (2011)

Journal of Habitat Engineering, Vol3-2, pp 209-218
Jalpa Gandhi,

Supported by:

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Govt. of India, Gujarat Energy Development Agency, U.S. Agency for International Development iNDEXTb (Industrial Extension Bureau) Govt. of Gujarat, Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation, New Delhi