Directed Research Projects

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Directed Research Projects

Strategic Framework For Net Zero Energy Campus In India: A Case Of CEPT University Campus (2016)
Amiya Behera, Yash Shukla, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: To achieve indoor environmental comfort conditions and to facilitate economic activities, building occupants use electric energy. In conventional scenario electric grid provides electricity to buildings. This study attempts to evaluate feasibility of CEPT University campus – an academic, research and development facility located in hot and dry climate

Thermal Performance Of Vegetation On Urban Microclimate (2011)
Jalpa Gandhi, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Urbanization has direct impact on the spatial structure of the city, which in turn results in the dramatic change of the overall immediate environment. High-rise, high density built areas provides multiple surfaces for the reflection of direct and indirect solar radiation as well as absorption & storage of the anthropogenic

Study To Evaluate Window Energy Performance In Indian Building Sector (2011)
Purvi Panchal, Rajan Rawal and Bipin Shah
Abstract: This paper explores conventional window assemblies used in current practice and design parameters which influence heat transfer through the different window components in a window assembly, using THERM 5.2 –two dimensional conduction heat transfers modeling based on the finite element method. A comprehensive set of correlations, based

Integration Of Solar Photovoltaics: To Suffice Interior Lighting Energy Consumption Of Office Buildings In Ahmedabad – An Approach Towards Zero Lighting Energy Consumption (2011)
Ashima Charnalia, Jyotirmay Mathur and Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The study focuses on ways to minimize interior lighting energy consumption (ILEC) in daytime use office buildings and proposes use of solar photovoltaic’s (SPVs) to suffice the remaining lighting energy requirement. The objective of the study is to attain interior lighting energy autonomy through Solar Photovoltaic’s. The
The results of three floor plates also demonstrated that with every increase of 250 m2 floor plate area, there is a percentage increase of 56.8% in annual ILEC, with percentage increase of 50% in annual roof top energy generation, with percentage increase of 62.5% in annual energy imports from the grid, with percentage increase of 46.5% in annual energy exports to the grid. This implies that with increasing the floor plate area as the core area increases, there is a percentage decrease of 32.8% in annual net surplus energy on site.The second analysis Economics part, the study projected the life period energy summary to obtain life period cost summary of the installed SPV systems, which demonstrated that rooftop SPV system is still very high capital incentive investment with payback period of 22-24 years, without considering any government subsidiaries.
Overall, the study demonstrates a sustainable approach towards interior lighting energy use in the building sector by utilizing renewable solar energy source.Presented at: International Building Performance Simulation Association -An IBPSA-AIRAH conference, November 2011, Sydney.

Study Of Prevailing Lighting Power Density In Commercial Office Buildings – Understanding Occupants Visual Comfort Against Available Illuminance. (2010)
Chaitali Trivedi, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The study presents evaluation on illuminance levels received at work-plane against visual comfort condition and user’s perception in office buildings. Evaluation is done three ways:1) Subjective Evaluation by intervening people2) Objective Evaluation based on the questionnaire used during the survey3) Evaluation based Statistical analysis. Thus an overall comfort rating scale

Relationship Between Kitchen Design And Indoor Air Quality – Study Of Indoor Air Quality In High Rise Residential Kitchens In Ahmedabad (2010)
Deepali Agrawal, Munjal Bhatt
Abstract: Quality of indoor air in residential spaces is important as people spend on average 13 hours at home daily which make them susceptible to airborne contaminants. Air quality is of great significance for these spaes. Indoor air quality is affected by external environmental factors and internal processes. The major source

Potential Savings In Lighting Energy Due To Advancement In Indian Standard Time: An Enquiry In Context OF Commercial Office Spaces In India. (2010)
Padmini Rajaram, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Indian Standard Time (IST) is calculated with reference to 82.5° E longitude and the difference of +0530 hours from Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The permanent advancement of IST was proposed in the previous study from +0530 to +0600 hours with reference to 90° E longitude and is estimated to 16%
Presented at: International Building Performance Simulation Association -An IBPSA-AIRAH conference, November 2011, Sydney

PCM Application In Walls And Its Impact On Energy Consumption, Thermal Comfort And Cost Benefit Analysis In Hot And Dry Climate (2017)

Shailee Goswami, Rajan Rawal

Abstract: This study will demonstrate the impact of organic phase change materials (PCM) integration in walls towards energy consumption, thermal comfort and cost benefit analysis. The analysis will be done for a hypothetical 3 storey commercial building, which is Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) compliant. This building is fully air conditioned and is

Evaluating Low Energy Cooling Systems In Warm-Humid Climate For Energy Consumption And Thermal Comfort (2017)
Dharini Sridharan, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Energy consumed by commercial buildings account for over 35% of the total energy consumption in India making the building sector one of the largest energy consumers. Studies found that energy consumption due to space cooling and lighting in commercial buildings account for nearly two-thirds of the overall consumption. Providing cooling
A report by the Global Buildings Performance Network (GBPN) on the quality and availability of building performance data around the world showed that the data used for modelling in India is frequently inaccessible and that high quality field study data is required for accurate assessment of the potential savings. This paper evaluates three non-refrigerant based low energy cooling systems for thermal comfort and energy consumption using such field study data in hot and dry climatic locations in India. The energy consumption evaluation is done through on-site energy monitoring of each system and further comparison with other systems through simulations in DesignBuilder and EnergyPlus. The thermal comfort evaluation is done through on-site comfort surveys similar to the Building Use Studies (BUS) methodology or the Building Occupants Survey System Australia (BOSSA). On continuing research for various climatic conditions as part of future scope, this research will help identify opportunities for development in these systems for better performance. It will also assist stakeholders to select an appropriate low energy cooling system for their project by anticipating potential energy and cost savings.

Impact Of Thermal Properties Of Building Material On Building Energy Consumption (2017
Tanushree Charan, Rajan Rawal, Dipsha Shah
Abstract: Building energy modelling and simulation or building performance simulation (BPS) is a powerful method for studying energy performance of buildings and it helps choose construction materials and methods to optimize energy consumption. BPS uses input parameters to determine energy performance of building. Correct input parameters help predict accurate
- Weather Data
- Thermal Comfort of building occupants
- Building Material’s thermal and hygrothermal properties

Every material used in an envelope assembly has fundamental physical properties that determine their energy performance like thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal diffusivity. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) Fundamental carries database of building material properties. This data base is widely used across the globe. CARBSE has characterized building material database of material available in Indian market and conditions. Hence, to improve the accuracy of the simulation, the input data should include locally available materials for India.

The study aims to determine the difference in energy consumption due to material input parameters as per ASHRAE, and other international database vis-a-vis CARBSE database and database for locally available materials in India.

Introduction Of Air Velocity To Achieve Thermal Comfort And Its Impact On Energy Consumption (2016)
Pooja Chavan, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: In India, energy demand is believed to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2.5 by 2030. The energy and environmental consequences of conditioning a building are immense. For regulation of indoor thermal environment, air conditioning is used commonly, both in residential and commercial buildings, which results in large energy

As a result, the study aims to provide means to adopt higher temperature for HVAC systems while achieving thermal comfort and offers an opportunity to control owns own microclimate.

Thermal Comfort And Its Effects On Health And Productivity: Evaluating Office Buildings In Mumbai, India (2016)
Cynthia Alex, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The building sector is one of the largest emitters of CO2 to the global atmosphere and the construction industry in India is growing rapidly with its main focus on the commercial sector. This along with the changing climate, increasing temperatures and purchasing power in metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi
(1) Building Characteristics
(2) Instantaneous Readings
(3) Occupant Survey
Occupant response would also help in diagnosing prevailing issues in a building. The collected data would then be critically analysed to learn the various factors that affect Occupants Satisfaction levels. This would help in identifying improved energy efficient technologies and systems that would aid to enhance their Health and Comfort at work.

This study would in the future help Architects and building decision makers to move beyond the first cost decision making to support investments in high performance and energy efficient technologies.

Movable Shading Devices And Its Impact On Total Energy Consumption And Solar Heat Gain (2016)
Chinmay Patel, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Climate responsive architectural practice has given a rise to various architectural vocabularies. Use of movable external shading devices has given a distinct character to facades along with providing opportunities to reduce solar heat gain and control daylight. Empirical studies have shown advantages of such systems, this study takes a leap

Key Words: Daylighting, dynamic shading device, louvers, office building, hot and dry, India

Daylight Performance Evaluation Of Laser Cut Panel In Office Buildings – A Case Of Indian Cities (2015)
Hema Mulchandani, Rajan Rawal, Agam Shah, Yash Shukla, Charlie Curcija, Sekhar Nori
Abstract: Daylight in office buildings can significantly contribute in lighting energy savings. In addition, daylight improves the occupant’s working environment, performance, health and well-being. Large floor plates for offices accommodates open plan layout, which help to meet contemporary functions of offices. In such

Keywords: Daylight Performance, Laser cut panel, Bi-directional scattering distribution function

Analytical Study On Trade-Offs Between Electric Light And Daylight To Achieve Energy Efficiency (2015)
Saranya S Nair, Rajan Rawal, Agam Shah
Abstract: To provide daylight within a building is an important strategy to improve indoor environmental quality and reduce dependence on electric lighting. Reduction in energy used for electric lighting can be achieved by installing energy efficient lighting system or by increasing presence of daylight. Penetration of daylight can also bring

Keywords: Daylight, Office building, Glazing systems, Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR), Orientation, Energy Performance Index, Annual Energy Savings, Average Annual Daylight Availability, Spatial Daylight Availability.

Presented at: 7th National Conference on Advances in Energy Conversion Technologies (AECT) at Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal.

Approach To Assess Environmental Impact Of Building Materials Based On Cradle To Cradle® Principles (2014)
Divya Batra
Abstract: New technology is entailed with not only advantages but also hazards. The ever increasing demand of new materials and new products has made us produce more than what we want. Warnings have been sounded around the world since 1960s about the deterioration of the environment. “The material from which products are constructed

Keywords: Material assessment, Building, Environment, Chemicals, Recycle, Health, Material Cycle, Cradle to Cradle.

Impact Of Moisture Retention Properties Of Wall Assemblies On Occupant’s Health In Naturally Ventilated Building (2014)
Shaily Mahera
Abstract: The envelope of a building is subjected to heat and moisture conditions. Heat and moisture from the surrounding environment affects the building’s environmental performance and indoor air quality. Hygrothermal behavior of wall assemblies has an important impact on the indoor air quality and thus human health. This study focuses on understanding the

Model The Change In Trend In The Use Of Electrical Appliances And Evaluate The Potential Of Maximizing India’s Residential Equipment Efficiency And The Subsequent Energy Demand Implications Along With The Mapping Of The Electricity Consumption Patt
Ruchi Shah
Abstract: The study aims to map the existing electricity consumption pattern in residential buildings in Pune, India. The study would also aim to understand the change in trend in the use of electrical appliances over the past ten years along with the increase in the gross domestic product (GDP). One area with significant

A Study To Understand Energy Performance Of ‘Window’ Design In India Evolved Over The Last Century (2014)
Madhvi Singh
Abstract: Indian buildings are believed to be built with an energy conscious approach since an early age. The openings in the building envelope play a major role as they allow natural daylight as well as a visual connection to the outside environment. They, on the other hand, also become a medium for heat

Plug Load Consumption In Typical Commercial Offices In India (2013)
Mithi Dave, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The increasing penetration and diversity of plug loads and their ubiquitous nature in work environments in India means that they are potentially significant consumers of electricity. End-use energy efficiency measures in buildings have largely ignored plug loads which might be attributed to a dearth of India-specific studies which quantify plug-load

Keywords: plug loads, measurements, end-use, offices, standby power

Presented at:'4th Master’s Conference - PEOPLE and BUILDINGS' at Sir John Cass Faculty of Art, Architecture and Design, London Metropolitan University, UK

Determining Tradeoff Between Thermal Comfort & Cooling Consumption In Office Buildings (2012)
Krutika Ghawghawe, Sanyogita Manu
Abstract: Energy demand for heating or cooling is directly affected by the required level of thermal comfort. The enquiry will be to understand the impact of setpoint temperature and Coefficient of performance (COP) of a system on energy consumption as well as thermal comfort of occupants in office spaces and analyses

Embodied And Operational Energy Assessment Of Alternative Walling Materials For Multi-Storey Buildings In Ahmedabad – An Approach Toward Low Energy Buildings In A Lifecycle (2011)
Nirav Sonagara, Kashikar Vishwanath
Abstract: Increasing requirement of energy demand and limited availability of resources has led to the need for energy efficiency in manufacturing of building materials as well as energy used in operation of building making it a critical subject to study. Substantial amount of energy is spent in the transportation and manufacturing

Analysis Of Daylighting Devices For Office Buildings Of New Delhi, India (2009)
Neha Singhal, Tanmay Tathagat
Abstract: Deep plans have become a common practice in multi-storey buildings’ designing and large open plans have become the preferred choice in order to have flexibility of the space and economic benefits. However, the deep core areas of these buildings cannot be naturally illuminated by side windows, and therefore, such areas
This contribution has been published in the conference on International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA) held at Glasgow – 2009. For further details please visit: IBPSA, BS 2009.

Evaluation Of One Dimensional Transient Heat Transfer Through Composite Wall Assemblies (2011)
Shilpi Saboo, Munjal Bhatt
Abstract: The main objective of the research is to evaluate one dimensional transient Heat Transfer through composite wall assemblies. The composite wall assemblies are categorized in four parts; monolithic, insulated walls, cavity walls and hollow blocks. The example studied under monolithic walls are brick and stone, cavity walls with varying cavity
The 2°C temperature variation is kept as the output and accordingly the thicknesses of various assemblies are varied to achieve the result. Total 10 Wall assemblies are experimented to figure out the optimum variation. All the assemblies are simulated for a typical summer day, extreme summer week to understand the transient heat transfer phenomena. Similar is done for winter. The influence of layer distribution and thickness on the thermal behavior is studied.Impact of variables of Time and Temperature becomes an important phenomenon to study transient heat transfer. The data generated from simulation runs is then analyzed and comparison can be made for various wall assemblies. Final comparison of transient phenomenon between the various cases is made to identify the most efficient strategy for composite wall assemblies.

A Comparative Study On Energy Savings And Economics For Insulating Materials Used In Wall In Hot And Dry Climate (2009)
Dhara Naik, Madhvi Patel
Abstract: An important factor impacting energy efficiency in building is its envelope and also the amount of energy consumed depends on the design of the fabric of the building. A systematic approach to determine the most energy efficient and at the same time most economically viable insulating material when used on

Passive Design Indices: Quantifying The Potential For Passive Design Strategies In A Climate (2017)
Jaydeep Bhadra, Prasad Vaidya, Saket Saraf
Abstract: The study focuses on developing indices to assess and compare passive design strategies based on their potential for a climate. Cooling accounts for 40%-60% of summer peak load in large metropolitan cities and AC sales in India are growing at 30% per year (Clean Energy Ministerial, 2014). Climate plays crucial

Passive design indices will enable policy makers to develop climate zone maps that highlight the potential for specific low energy solutions in a climate. Since these indices provide a measure of the potential for the use of passive strategies in a climate, they will provide firsthand information to designers to select the correct strategy based on the opportunity available in the climate.

Keywords: Passive design, Indices, Climate, Weather analysis, Potential, Low energy cooling.

Comparative Analysis Of Daylighting Systems For A High-Rise Office Building In Mumbai (2016)
Nitika Torvi, Agam Shah
Abstract: In dense urban areas, high rise buildings cause sky obstruction which in turn create dark interior spaces. Daylighting can be a major issue in designing energy efficient building. In recent years, daylighting of deep plans has become very important, not only to reduce total energy consumption of the building but

The Study Of Skylight To Roof Ratio (SRR) In The Industrial Sheds Of Vadodara (2016
Ridhima Passi, Agam Shah
Abstract: Day lighting is a primary design strategy to reduce energy consumption especially during peak loads of energy demand. It is evident that there is lot of growth in the industrial field and new areas are been dedicated for the industrial set ups outside the city. The industries which are getting

The skylight roof ratio (SRR) is the ratio of the area of skylight in comparison of the total roof area. One can find out how much amount of day light is entering the volume through skylights which will create a healthy working environment for the workers to work. The paper is about the appropriate proportion of the skylight with respect to the volume of the space. The study is to find out uniform natural light in a particular volume of space through skylights which are fixed. The distribution, number and the size of skylight used in a particular volume are the main factors to achieve the required illumination within that space. The material of the skylight is another important factor for the uniformity of the light in the space. The study will include experiments with different materials and their effects on the day light performance of that space. The research conducted will be based on testing of scaled model.

Evaluation Of Daylight Performance Of Existing Classroom Spaces At Ahmedabad (2016)
Kratika Piparsania, Agam Shah
Abstract: The study uses building energy simulation tools to analyze the conceptual models representative of existing classroom spaces in Ahmedabad, in order to study the daylight performance and compare it with the best practice. The existing classroom spaces are studied and examined and the best representative classroom are then simulated to

Analysis Of Proposed Institutional Campuses & Potential Of Net Zero Energy Campuses In India (2016)
Ankita Bokhad, Rajan Rawal, Prasad Vaidya
Abstract: The concept of a Net Zero Energy (NZE), one which produces as much energy as it uses over the course of a year, recently has been evolving from research to reality. Currently, there are only a small number of highly efficient buildings that meet the criteria to be called "Net

The research focuses on analysing upcoming net zero energy campuses in India on the basis of their architectural expression, envelopes and systems and integration of renewable sources on the site campus. This would lead to a consolidated piece of work that might inform about the relevant practices to achieve net zero. This may also inform us about some other practices, which might not be as helpful in achieving net zero balance, so they could be considered secondary.

Impact Of Native Evergreen Trees On The Visual Comfort In An Office Space In Ahmedabad, India (2014)
Ankit Bhalla, Sanyogita Manu
Abstract: This study investigated the impact of native evergreen trees on the daylight availability in office spaces in Ahmedabad, India. An evergreen tree, native to the hot and dry climate of Ahmedabad, was selected and its impact on daylighting in interior spaces is analyzed compared to a no-tree scenario. The distance

Presented at: 30th International PLEA Conference, December 2014, Ahmedabad

Study On Reasons For Occupant Control Of Windows And Its Impact On Energy Consumption In Residences On India (2014)
Surbhi Pandit
Abstract: Traffic is a significant part of urban environment contributing about 55% to the total urban noise and is an inescapable by-product of ever growing industrial environment in India. As a standard WHO has fixed 45 decibels as the safe noise level for a city, which if exceeded, can cause loss of hearing

Impact Of The Building Envelope On The Indoor Thermal Comfort In Institutional Buildings: Study In Jaipur Region (2014)
Poonam Shah
Abstract: One of the most important factors that affect human health and performance in a building environment is thermal comfort. Thermal comfort in building results from a complex set of physical conditions, occupant sensations, their behavior as well as the characteristics of the building. The enquiry will be to understand the impact of

Keywords: Building envelope, construction material, construction techniques, indoor environment, thermal conditions, and composite climate.

Study Of Thermal Sensation Of Occupants In Office Buildings Located In Hot And Dry Climatic Zone, Ahmedabad, India (2012)
Chinta Shree Sowmya, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Thermal comfort as defined by ASHRAE 55 standard defines, “It is the state of that condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation”. In India, we follow a range of temperature based on ASHRAE 55 standard for air conditioned buildings. Many

Keywords: Thermal comfort, naturally ventilated, air conditioned, thermal comfort votes, air movement, clothing, activity, indoor environmental conditions, adaptive thermal comfort, thermal sensation, building characteristics, ASHRAE 55 standard.

Impact Of Presence Of Courtyard On Thermal Characteristics Of Vernacular Residential Building – An Exploration In Hot-Dry Vernacular Context Of Ahmedabad (2012)
Mihir Vakharia, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The practice of having a courtyard in hot-dry and hot-humid climate has been in practice since medieval times. This study focuses on presence of courtyard in residential unit - “Pol-House” house as it is known in vernacular language, in the city of Ahmedabad. This study is an endeavour to understand thermal characteristics

Analysis Of Indian Traditional Jali (Stone Latticed Screen) For Daylighting Through Simulations (2011)
Dharmesh Gandhi, Vishal Garg
Abstract: This study analyses Jali (stone latticed screen) for its daylight performance. Jali is an Indian term used for lattice work done on windows in ornamental/geometrical patterns. Jalis are used extensively in Islamic architecture. The physical function of the Jali is to reduce the amount of light admitted inside and to

Evaluating Thermal Comfort Of Occupants [In Conditioned Office Spaces] (2010)
Smriti Singla, Shruti Narayan
Abstract: The main aim while designing a space is to provide comfort to its users. In any office buildings, productivity of employees and hence the health is a main cause of concern for the parent company. Sick building syndrome was one of the main reasons for creation of new field in

The results show that there is a potential scope of expanding the presently suggested thermal comfort band to higher temperatures even in air conditioned spaces. Further, based on established studies, it can be stated that an increment in set point temperatures of the thermostats’ regulating the temperature of a space does help reduce the energy consumption of the building (every two degree increase in temperature results in a 20% reduction in cooling loads of the building) and hence supports more sustainable and environmentally responsible buildings.

Optimizing WINDOWS For Thermal And Daylighting Performance: A Case Of Commercial Buildings In Ahmedabad, India (2009)
Sanyogita Manu, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: This study uses building energy simulation tools to analyze hypothetical models representative of commercial buildings in the hot-dry climate of Ahmedabad to understand the daylighting and thermal performance of windows. Impact of variables such as floor area, aspect ratio, glazing/window area, orientation, glazing types and overhang has been observed on

Effect Of Courtyard On Thermal Performance Of Commercial Buildings In Hot-Dry Climate, Ahmedabad, India (2009)
Rachit kumar, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Energy efficiency in buildings is becoming an important concern to the building designers. Commercial buildings consume a huge amount of energy in heating, cooling lighting of the building spaces; hence there is a need to find effective design measures to develop energy efficient buildings. Courtyard is a traditional design measure

Rachit kumar, Rajan Rawal Abstract: Energy efficiency in buildings is becoming an important concern to the building designers. Commercial buildings consume a huge amount of energy in heating, cooling lighting of the building spaces; hence there is a
Rohini Singh, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The paper attempts to analyze the relationship between surface color reflectance and lighting power density for a given set of context. Analysis was based on digital modeling using validated energy simulations tool. The study establishes itself on this premise. The exercise elaborates evaluating the impact of vertical and horizontal planar interior elements’

Presented at: International Building Performance Simulation Association -An IBPSA-AIRAH conference, November 2011, Sydney.

Supported by:

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Govt. of India, Gujarat Energy Development Agency, U.S. Agency for International Development iNDEXTb (Industrial Extension Bureau) Govt. of Gujarat, Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation, New Delhi