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Directed Research Projects

Greenhouse gas emissions framework of the cities in India (2022)

Authors: Priyanka K Raman 

Benchmarking residential apartment buildings' energy use for a Tier-2 city using simulated and measured data (2022)

Authors: Shivangi Singh 

Energy Efficiency in Municipal Services: Assessment of City Level Energy Consumption in Wastewater Management (Ahmedabad). (2021)

Authors: Srushti Thakur, Mona Iyer, Palak Patel, Sachin S, Rajan Rawal

Abstract: Municipal services account for 4% of the total electricity consumption in India. In wastewater management value chain, 40% - 80% of the operational expenditure is on electricity. Conventionally, energy efficiency studies and interventions focus on electro-mechanical

City Level Fuel Energy Efficiency in Municipal Solid Waste Collection: A Case of Ahmedabad. (2021)

AuthorsSneha Bhattacharyya, Mona Iyer, Sachin S., Rajan Rawal

Abstract: Efficient service delivery in the Municipal

Assessing a fit-for-purpose Urban Building Energy Modelling framework with reference to Ahmedabad (2020)

Authors: Anmol Mathur, Pamela Fennell, Rajan Rawal, Ivan Korolija

Abstract: Urban building energy models (UBEM) are important data-driven tools to support sustainable design and operations of cities, incorporating datasets from buildings and urban infrastructure. UBEMs are developed from a range of inputs on the spatial

Electricity Consumption in Municipal Water Distribution Systems: Relationship with the urban form at city level (2019)

AuthorsShelly Vaish, Mona Iyer, Rajan Rawal, Sachin S, Shivani Chouhan

AbstractMunicipal water supply systems account for the highest share of total electricity consumption out of the other energy-intensive municipal

Factors affecting energy demand in municipal water supply (2019)

Authors: Sachin S, Shivani Chouhan & Mona Iyer

Abstract: This paper focuses on identifying the spatial parameters that affect the energy consumption of the municipal services, especially in the water supply system, understanding their impacts and establishing a relationship between them.

Strategic Framework For Net Zero Energy Campus In India: A Case Of CEPT University Campus (2016)
Authors: Amiya Behera, Yash Shukla, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: To achieve indoor environmental comfort conditions and to facilitate economic activities, building occupants use electric energy. In conventional scenario electric grid provides electricity to buildings. This study attempts to evaluate feasibility of CEPT University campus

Thermal Performance Of Vegetation On Urban Microclimate (2011)
Authors: Jalpa Gandhi, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Urbanization has direct impact on the spatial structure of the city, which in turn results in the dramatic change of the overall immediate environment. High-rise, high density built areas provides multiple surfaces for

Study To Evaluate Window Energy Performance In Indian Building Sector (2011)
Authors: Purvi Panchal, Rajan Rawal, Bipin Shah
Abstract: This paper explores conventional window assemblies used in current practice and design parameters which influence heat transfer through the different window components in a window assembly, using THERM 5.2 –two dimensional conduction heat transfers modeling

Integration Of Solar Photovoltaics: To Suffice Interior Lighting Energy Consumption Of Office Buildings In Ahmedabad – An Approach Towards Zero Lighting Energy Consumption (2011)
Authors: Ashima Charnalia, Jyotirmay Mathur, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The study focuses on ways to minimize interior lighting energy consumption (ILEC) in daytime use office buildings and proposes use of solar photovoltaic’s (SPVs) to suffice the remaining lighting energy requirement.
The results of three floor plates also demonstrated that with every increase of 250 m2 floor plate area, there is a percentage increase of 56.8% in annual ILEC, with percentage increase of 50% in annual roof top energy generation, with percentage increase of 62.5% in annual energy imports from the grid, with percentage increase of 46.5% in annual energy exports to the grid. This implies that with increasing the floor plate area as the core area increases, there is a percentage decrease of 32.8% in annual net surplus energy on site. The second analysis Economics part, the study projected the life period energy summary to obtain life period cost summary of the installed SPV systems, which demonstrated that rooftop SPV system is still very high capital incentive investment with payback period of 22-24 years, without considering any government subsidiaries.
Overall, the study demonstrates a sustainable approach towards interior lighting energy use in the building sector by utilizing renewable solar energy source. Presented at: International Building Performance Simulation Association -An IBPSA-AIRAH conference, November 2011, Sydney.

Study Of Prevailing Lighting Power Density In Commercial Office Buildings – Understanding Occupants Visual Comfort Against Available Illuminance. (2010)
Authors: Chaitali Trivedi, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The study presents evaluation on illuminance levels received at work-plane against visual comfort condition and user’s perception in office buildings. Evaluation is done three ways:1) Subjective Evaluation by intervening people2) Objective Evaluation based

Relationship Between Kitchen Design And Indoor Air Quality – Study Of Indoor Air Quality In High Rise Residential Kitchens In Ahmedabad (2010)
Authors: Deepali Agrawal, Munjal Bhatt
Abstract: Quality of indoor air in residential spaces is important as people spend on average 13 hours at home daily which make them susceptible to airborne contaminants. Air quality is of great significance for these spaces. Indoor air

Potential Savings In Lighting Energy Due To Advancement In Indian Standard Time: An Enquiry In Context OF Commercial Office Spaces In India. (2010)
Authors: Padmini Rajaram, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Indian Standard Time (IST) is calculated with reference to 82.5° E longitude and the difference of +0530 hours from Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The permanent advancement of IST was proposed in the previous
Presented at: International Building Performance Simulation Association -An IBPSA-AIRAH conference, November 2011, Sydney

Data-driven performance evaluation of DX split air conditioning systems (2022)

Authors: Rameez Lal M, Yash Shukla

Experimental assessment of various control algorithms for direct (2022)

Authors: Shreya Nigam

Assessment of Energy consumption in Stormwater Management (Ahmedabad) (2021)

Authors: Sakshi Sharma, Mona Iyer, Palak Patel, Sachin S, Rajan Rawal

Abstract: Rapid urbanization has resulted in fast development and stress on the water cycle and energy consumption. Increased built and paved surfaces lead to increased surface runoff and urban

PCM Application In Walls And Its Impact On Energy Consumption, Thermal Comfort And Cost Benefit Analysis In Hot And Dry Climate (2017)

Authors: Shailee Goswami, Rajan Rawal

Abstract: This study will demonstrate the impact of organic phase change materials (PCM) integration in walls towards energy consumption, thermal comfort and cost benefit analysis. The analysis will be done for a hypothetical 3 storey commercial building, which is

Evaluating Low Energy Cooling Systems In Warm-Humid Climate For Energy Consumption And Thermal Comfort (2017)
Authors: Dharini Sridharan, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Energy consumed by commercial buildings account for over 35% of the total energy consumption in India making the building sector one of the largest energy consumers. Studies found that energy consumption due to
A report by the Global Buildings Performance Network (GBPN) on the quality and availability of building performance data around the world showed that the data used for modelling in India is frequently inaccessible and that high quality field study data is required for accurate assessment of the potential savings. This paper evaluates three non-refrigerant based low energy cooling systems for thermal comfort and energy consumption using such field study data in hot and dry climatic locations in India. The energy consumption evaluation is done through on-site energy monitoring of each system and further comparison with other systems through simulations in DesignBuilder and EnergyPlus. The thermal comfort evaluation is done through on-site comfort surveys similar to the Building Use Studies (BUS) methodology or the Building Occupants Survey System Australia (BOSSA). On continuing research for various climatic conditions as part of future scope, this research will help identify opportunities for development in these systems for better performance. It will also assist stakeholders to select an appropriate low energy cooling system for their project by anticipating potential energy and cost savings.

Impact Of Thermal Properties Of Building Material On Building Energy Consumption (2017)
Authors: Tanushree Charan, Rajan Rawal, Dipsha Shah
Abstract: Building energy modelling and simulation or building performance simulation (BPS) is a powerful method for studying energy performance of buildings and it helps choose construction materials and methods to optimize energy consumption. BPS uses input parameters
- Weather Data
- Thermal Comfort of building occupants
- Building Material’s thermal and hygrothermal properties
Every material used in an envelope assembly has fundamental physical properties that determine their energy performance like thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal diffusivity. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) Fundamental carries database of building material properties. This data base is widely used across the globe. CARBSE has characterized building material database of material available in Indian market and conditions. Hence, to improve the accuracy of the simulation, the input data should include locally available materials for India.
The study aims to determine the difference in energy consumption due to material input parameters as per ASHRAE, and other international database vis-a-vis CARBSE database and database for locally available materials in India.

Introduction Of Air Velocity To Achieve Thermal Comfort And Its Impact On Energy Consumption (2016)
Authors: Pooja Chavan, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: In India, energy demand is believed to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2.5 by 2030. The energy and environmental consequences of conditioning a building are immense. For regulation of indoor thermal environment, air conditioning is
As a result, the study aims to provide means to adopt higher temperature for HVAC systems while achieving thermal comfort and offers an opportunity to control owns own microclimate.

Thermal Comfort And Its Effects On Health And Productivity: Evaluating Office Buildings In Mumbai, India (2016)
Authors: Cynthia Alex, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The building sector is one of the largest emitters of CO2 to the global atmosphere and the construction industry in India is growing rapidly with its main focus on the commercial sector. This along with
(1) Building Characteristics
(2) Instantaneous Readings
(3) Occupant Survey
Occupant response would also help in diagnosing prevailing issues in a building. The collected data would then be critically analysed to learn the various factors that affect Occupants Satisfaction levels. This would help in identifying improved energy efficient technologies and systems that would aid to enhance their Health and Comfort at work.
This study would in the future help Architects and building decision makers to move beyond the first cost decision making to support investments in high performance and energy efficient technologies.

Movable Shading Devices And Its Impact On Total Energy Consumption And Solar Heat Gain (2016)
Authors: Chinmay Patel, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Climate responsive architectural practice has given a rise to various architectural vocabularies. Use of movable external shading devices has given a distinct character to facades along with providing opportunities to reduce solar heat gain and control daylight. Empirical
Keywords: Daylighting, dynamic shading device, louvers, office building, hot and dry, India

Daylight Performance Evaluation Of Laser Cut Panel In Office Buildings – A Case Of Indian Cities (2015)
Authors: Hema Mulchandani, Rajan Rawal, Agam Shah, Yash Shukla, Charlie Curcija, Sekhar Nori
Abstract: Daylight in office buildings can significantly contribute in lighting energy savings. In addition, daylight improves the occupant’s working environment,
Keywords: Daylight Performance, Laser cut panel, Bi-directional scattering distribution function

Analytical Study On Trade-Offs Between Electric Light And Daylight To Achieve Energy Efficiency (2015)
Authors: Saranya S Nair, Rajan Rawal, Agam Shah
Abstract: To provide daylight within a building is an important strategy to improve indoor environmental quality and reduce dependence on electric lighting. Reduction in energy used for electric
Keywords: Daylight, Office building, Glazing systems, Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR), Orientation, Energy Performance Index, Annual Energy Savings, Average Annual Daylight Availability, Spatial Daylight Availability.
Presented at: 7th National Conference on Advances in Energy Conversion Technologies (AECT) at Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal.

Approach To Assess Environmental Impact Of Building Materials Based On Cradle To Cradle® Principles (2014)
Authors: Divya Batra
Abstract: New technology is entailed with not only advantages but also hazards. The ever increasing demand of new materials and new products has made us produce more than what we want. Warnings have been sounded around the
Keywords: Material assessment, Building, Environment, Chemicals, Recycle, Health, Material Cycle, Cradle to Cradle.

Impact Of Moisture Retention Properties Of Wall Assemblies On Occupant’s Health In Naturally Ventilated Building (2014)
Authors: Shaily Mahera
Abstract: The envelope of a building is subjected to heat and moisture conditions. Heat and moisture from the surrounding environment affects the building’s environmental performance and indoor air quality. Hygrothermal behavior of

Model The Change In Trend In The Use Of Electrical Appliances And Evaluate The Potential Of Maximizing India’s Residential Equipment Efficiency And The Subsequent Energy Demand Implications Along With The Mapping Of The Electricity Consumption Patt
Authors: Ruchi Shah
Abstract: The study aims to map the existing electricity consumption pattern in residential buildings in Pune, India. The study would also aim to understand the change in trend in the use of electrical appliances over the past ten years along

A Study To Understand Energy Performance Of ‘Window’ Design In India Evolved Over The Last Century (2014)
Authors: Madhvi Singh
Abstract: Indian buildings are believed to be built with an energy conscious approach since an early age. The openings in the building envelope play a major role as they allow natural daylight as well as a

Plug Load Consumption In Typical Commercial Offices In India (2013)
Authors: Mithi Dave, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The increasing penetration and diversity of plug loads and their ubiquitous nature in work environments in India means that they are potentially significant consumers of electricity. End-use energy efficiency measures in buildings have
Keywords: plug loads, measurements, end-use, offices, standby power
Presented at:'4th Master’s Conference - PEOPLE and BUILDINGS' at Sir John Cass Faculty of Art, Architecture and Design, London Metropolitan University, UK

Determining Tradeoff Between Thermal Comfort & Cooling Consumption In Office Buildings (2012)
Authors: Krutika Ghawghawe, Sanyogita Manu
Abstract: Energy demand for heating or cooling is directly affected by the required level of thermal comfort. The enquiry will be to understand the impact of setpoint temperature and Coefficient of performance (COP) of a system on energy consumption

Embodied And Operational Energy Assessment Of Alternative Walling Materials For Multi-Storey Buildings In Ahmedabad – An Approach Toward Low Energy Buildings In A Lifecycle (2011)
Authors: Nirav Sonagara, Kashikar Vishwanath
Abstract: Increasing requirement of energy demand and limited availability of resources has led to the need for energy efficiency in manufacturing of building materials as well as energy used in operation of building making it a critical

Evaluation Of One Dimensional Transient Heat Transfer Through Composite Wall Assemblies (2011)
Authors: Shilpi Saboo, Munjal Bhatt
Abstract: The main objective of the research is to evaluate one dimensional transient Heat Transfer through composite wall assemblies. The composite wall assemblies are categorized in four parts; monolithic, insulated walls, cavity walls and hollow blocks. The example studied
The 2°C temperature variation is kept as the output and accordingly the thicknesses of various assemblies are varied to achieve the result. Total 10 Wall assemblies are experimented to figure out the optimum variation. All the assemblies are simulated for a typical summer day, extreme summer week to understand the transient heat transfer phenomena. Similar is done for winter. The influence of layer distribution and thickness on the thermal behavior is studied. Impact of variables of Time and Temperature becomes an important phenomenon to study transient heat transfer. The data generated from simulation runs is then analyzed and comparison can be made for various wall assemblies. Final comparison of transient phenomenon between the various cases is made to identify the most efficient strategy for composite wall assemblies.

Analysis Of Daylighting Devices For Office Buildings Of New Delhi, India (2009)
Authors: Neha Singhal, Tanmay Tathagat
Abstract: Deep plans have become a common practice in multi-storey buildings’ designing and large open plans have become the preferred choice in order to have flexibility of the space and economic benefits. However, the deep core areas of these
This contribution has been published in the conference on International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA) held at Glasgow – 2009. For further details please visit: IBPSA, BS 2009.

A Comparative Study On Energy Savings And Economics For Insulating Materials Used In Wall In Hot And Dry Climate (2009)
Authors: Dhara Naik, Madhvi Patel
Abstract: An important factor impacting energy efficiency in building is its envelope and also the amount of energy consumed depends on the design of the fabric of the building. A systematic approach to determine the

Embodied Carbon Assessment of Walling technologies using Life Cycle Analysis for Housing Sector in India (2022)

Authors: Sakshi Nathani, Rajan Rawal

Urban Design Factors impacting Universal Thermal Comfort Index: A Case study of Ahmedabad (2022)

Authors: Nischay Goyal

An assessment of cooling loads in commercial buildings due to Urban Heat Islands - A study of Ahmedabad’s Central Business District (2022)

Authors: Akhil Tiwari 

Assessing the benefits of self-learning algorithms for a natural ventilation opening (2022)

Authors: Srinidhi L 

Developing and Calibrating a cost-effective method to determine Window to Wall ratio and Air-Conditioning status of existing buildings (2021)

Authors: Abraham Philip, Shaily Gandhi, Rajan Rawal

Abstract: The air-conditioning system is one of the major consumers of electricity in an urban context with the window/glazing in the building being the weakest elements in the envelope susceptible to heat ingress. In India, the HVAC system

Current Energy and Spatial Practices: Amongst Poor Urban Dwellers in the Selected Settlements (2021)

AuthorsElezebeth Baiju, Sejal Patel, Asha Joshi, Palak Patel, Rajan Rawal

AbstractA World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002 recognized the access of energy services as a

Developing a 3D geometry for Urban energy modelling of Indian cities (2020)

Authors: Kartikay Sharma, Rajan Rawal, Pamela Fennell, Anmol Mathur, Paul Ruyssevelt, Dru Crawley, Ivan Korolija

Abstract: The advancement in the field of Urban Building Energy Modelling (UBEM) is assisting urban planners and managers to design and operate cities to meet environmental emission targets. The usefulness

Passive Design Indices: Quantifying The Potential For Passive Design Strategies In A Climate (2017)
Authors: Jaydeep Bhadra, Prasad Vaidya, Saket Saraf
Abstract: The study focuses on developing indices to assess and compare passive design strategies based on their potential for a climate. Cooling accounts for 40%-60% of summer peak load in large metropolitan cities and AC sales in
Passive design indices will enable policy makers to develop climate zone maps that highlight the potential for specific low energy solutions in a climate. Since these indices provide a measure of the potential for the use of passive strategies in a climate, they will provide firsthand information to designers to select the correct strategy based on the opportunity available in the climate.
Keywords: Passive design, Indices, Climate, Weather analysis, Potential, Low energy cooling.

Comparative Analysis Of Daylighting Systems For A High-Rise Office Building In Mumbai (2016)
Authors: Nitika Torvi, Agam Shah
Abstract: In dense urban areas, high rise buildings cause sky obstruction which in turn create dark interior spaces. Daylighting can be a major issue in designing energy

The Study Of Skylight To Roof Ratio (SRR) In The Industrial Sheds Of Vadodara (2016)
Authors: Ridhima Passi, Agam Shah
Abstract: Day lighting is a primary design strategy to reduce energy consumption especially during peak loads of energy demand. It is evident that there is lot of growth in the industrial field and
The skylight roof ratio (SRR) is the ratio of the area of skylight in comparison of the total roof area. One can find out how much amount of day light is entering the volume through skylights which will create a healthy working environment for the workers to work. The paper is about the appropriate proportion of the skylight with respect to the volume of the space. The study is to find out uniform natural light in a particular volume of space through skylights which are fixed. The distribution, number and the size of skylight used in a particular volume are the main factors to achieve the required illumination within that space. The material of the skylight is another important factor for the uniformity of the light in the space. The study will include experiments with different materials and their effects on the day light performance of that space. The research conducted will be based on testing of scaled model.

Evaluation Of Daylight Performance Of Existing Classroom Spaces At Ahmedabad (2016)
Authors: Kratika Piparsania, Agam Shah
Abstract: The study uses building energy simulation tools to analyze the conceptual models representative of existing classroom spaces in Ahmedabad, in order to study the daylight performance and compare it with the best practice.

Analysis Of Proposed Institutional Campuses & Potential Of Net Zero Energy Campuses In India (2016)
Authors: Ankita Bokhad, Rajan Rawal, Prasad Vaidya
Abstract: The concept of a Net Zero Energy (NZE), one which produces as much energy as it uses over the course of a year, recently has
The research focuses on analysing upcoming net zero energy campuses in India on the basis of their architectural expression, envelopes and systems and integration of renewable sources on the site campus. This would lead to a consolidated piece of work that might inform about the relevant practices to achieve net zero. This may also inform us about some other practices, which might not be as helpful in achieving net zero balance, so they could be considered secondary.

Impact Of Native Evergreen Trees On The Visual Comfort In An Office Space In Ahmedabad, India (2014)
Authors: Ankit Bhalla, Sanyogita Manu
Abstract: This study investigated the impact of native evergreen trees on the daylight availability in office spaces in Ahmedabad, India. An evergreen tree, native to the hot
Presented at: 30th International PLEA Conference, December 2014, Ahmedabad

Study On Reasons For Occupant Control Of Windows And Its Impact On Energy Consumption In Residences On India (2014)
Authors: Surbhi Pandit
Abstract: Traffic is a significant part of urban environment contributing about 55% to the total urban noise and is an inescapable by-product of ever growing industrial environment in India. As a standard WHO has

Impact Of The Building Envelope On The Indoor Thermal Comfort In Institutional Buildings: Study In Jaipur Region (2014)
Authors: Poonam Shah
Abstract: One of the most important factors that affect human health and performance in a building environment is thermal comfort. Thermal comfort in building results from a complex set
Keywords: Building envelope, construction material, construction techniques, indoor environment, thermal conditions, and composite climate.

Study Of Thermal Sensation Of Occupants In Office Buildings Located In Hot And Dry Climatic Zone, Ahmedabad, India (2012)
Authors: Chinta Shree Sowmya, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Thermal comfort as defined by ASHRAE 55 standard defines, “It is the state of that condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment
Keywords: Thermal comfort, naturally ventilated, air conditioned, thermal comfort votes, air movement, clothing, activity, indoor environmental conditions, adaptive thermal comfort, thermal sensation, building characteristics, ASHRAE 55 standard.

Impact Of Presence Of Courtyard On Thermal Characteristics Of Vernacular Residential Building – An Exploration In Hot-Dry Vernacular Context Of Ahmedabad (2012)
Authors: Mihir Vakharia, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The practice of having a courtyard in hot-dry and hot-humid climate has been in practice since medieval times. This study focuses on presence of courtyard in residential unit - “Pol-House” house as it is known

Analysis Of Indian Traditional Jali (Stone Latticed Screen) For Daylighting Through Simulations (2011)
Authors: Dharmesh Gandhi, Vishal Garg
Abstract: This study analyses Jali (stone latticed screen) for its daylight performance. Jali is an Indian term used for lattice work done on windows in ornamental/geometrical patterns.

Evaluating Thermal Comfort Of Occupants [In Conditioned Office Spaces] (2010)
Authors: Smriti Singla, Shruti Narayan
Abstract: The main aim while designing a space is to provide comfort to its users. In any office buildings, productivity of employees and hence the health is a main cause of concern for
The results show that there is a potential scope of expanding the presently suggested thermal comfort band to higher temperatures even in air conditioned spaces. Further, based on established studies, it can be stated that an increment in set point temperatures of the thermostats’ regulating the temperature of a space does help reduce the energy consumption of the building (every two degree increase in temperature results in a 20% reduction in cooling loads of the building) and hence supports more sustainable and environmentally responsible buildings.

Optimizing WINDOWS For Thermal And Daylighting Performance: A Case Of Commercial Buildings In Ahmedabad, India (2009)
Authors: Sanyogita Manu, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: This study uses building energy simulation tools to analyze hypothetical models representative of commercial buildings in the hot-dry climate of Ahmedabad to understand the daylighting and thermal performance of windows. Impact

Effect Of Courtyard On Thermal Performance Of Commercial Buildings In Hot-Dry Climate, Ahmedabad, India (2009)
Authors: Rachit kumar, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: Energy efficiency in buildings is becoming an important concern to the building designers. Commercial buildings consume a huge amount of energy in heating, cooling lighting of the building spaces;

Effect Of Colours In Interiors…An Attempt To Understand The Energy Of Color With Light On Its Spatial Quality And Efficiency (2009)
Authors: Rohini Singh, Rajan Rawal
Abstract: The paper attempts to analyze the relationship between surface color reflectance and lighting power density for a given set of context. Analysis was based on digital modeling using validated energy simulations
Presented at: International Building Performance Simulation Association -An IBPSA-AIRAH conference, November 2011, Sydney.

Supported by:

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Govt. of India, Gujarat Energy Development Agency, U.S. Agency for International Development iNDEXTb (Industrial Extension Bureau) Govt. of Gujarat, Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation, New Delhi