The construction industry is one of the world's most resource-intensive and environmentally damaging industries. Construction materials dominate resource consumption; global material use is projected to more than double by 2060 and one-third of these will be the materials used in the building and construction sector. In 2019, the sector represented 38% of total energy-related emissions with almost 10% indirect emissions from materials.
The building sector in India accounts for nearly one-third of the nation’s energy use and approximately one-fifth of total CO2 emissions. The Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the extraction, transportation, production, and end-of-life building construction material, popularly known as embodied carbon emissions are key for most developing economies to meet their carbon emission reduction goals. The pace of urbanization in India has resulted in high demand for residential building construction. It has observed approximately an 11% increase in growth since 2014. The government of India has estimated a shortage of approximately 200 million dwelling units by the year 2030. The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U) scheme of the Government of India has targeted to deliver approximately 20 million affordable dwellings by the end of 2022.
The project's objective is to develop a Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) framework tailored for the Indian residential sector, to account for embodied carbon emissions from buildings; this framework can be adopted in India's residential Energy Conservation Building Codes (ECBC).